LIST OF ALL IMPORTANT CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
|1st Amendment Act
|Added 9th Schedule to protect the land reforms and the laws related to it from judicial review.
|7th Amendment Act
|– On the linguistic basis, the states had been reorganized into 14 States and 6 UTs.
– Extended the jurisdiction of the high court to UTs.
– Establishment of a common high court for 2 or more states.
|9th Amendment Act
|Facilitated the cession of the Indian territory of Berubari Union (located in WB) to Pakistan as provided in the Indo-Pakistan Agreement (1958).
|10th Amendment Act
|Incorporated Dadra and Nagar Haveli in the Indian Union.
|12th Amendment Act
|Incorporated Goa, Daman, and Diu in the Indian Union.
|13th Amendment Act
|Provide status of state to Nagaland and made special provisions for it.
|14th Amendment Act
|Incorporated Puducherry in the Indian Union.
|24th Amendment Act
|– Affirmed the power of parliament to amend any part of the constitution including fundamental rights.
– President must give his assent to a constitutional Amendment Bill.
|25th Amendment Act
|Curtailed the fundamental right to property.
|26th Amendment Act
|Abolished the titles and special privileges of former rulers of princely states.
|31st Amendment Act
|Increased the number of Lok Sabha seats from 525 to 545.
|36th Amendment Act
|Sikkim became the full-fledged state of the Indian Union and 10th schedule was omitted.
|42nd Amendment Act
|– Added Fundamental Duties by the citizen contained in Part-IV A.
– Added 3 new words – Socialist, Secular, and Integrity.
– Made the constitutional amendments beyond the judicial scrutiny.
– National emergency can be proclaimed in any part of the territory of India.
– The President is constitutionally bounded by the advice of the Council of Ministers.
– It provided supremacy of parliament and gave primacy to DPSP over Fundamental Rights.
– Extended the one-time duration of the President’s rule in a state from 6 months to 1 year.
– Added Part XIV A which includes tribunal for administrative and other matters.
– The term of Lok Sabha and State Legislative assemblies increased to 6 years from 5 years.
– The power of judicial review and writ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the High Court had been curtailed.
– Also called “Mini Constitution ”
|43rd Amendment Act
|– Restored the power of judicial review and writ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Court.
– The special power of the Parliament to make laws to deal with the anti-national activities had been taken away.
|44th Amendment Act
|– Removed the “Right to Property” from the list of Fundamental Rights.
– The fundamental rights guaranteed by Article 20 and 21 cannot be suspended during a national emergency.
– The term ‘internal disturbance’ had been replaced by the by ‘Armed Rebellion’.
– The term of Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies had been restored to 5 years.
|52nd Amendment Act
|Anti-Defection Law and added 10th schedule containing detail of this law.
|58th Amendment Act
|Translation of the Constitution in Hindi.
|61st Amendment Act
|Reducing the voting age from 21 to 18 years.
|65th Amendment Act
|Accorded statutory status to the commission for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and designated them as National Commission for the SC’s and the ST’s.
|73rd Amendment Act
|Added new Part – IX entitled as ‘the Panchayats’ and a new 11th Schedule which granted Constitutional status and protection to the Panchayati raj institutions.
|74th Amendment Act
|Added new Part – IX-A entitled as ‘the Municipalities’ and a new 12th Schedule which granted Constitutional status and protection to the urban local bodies.
|86th Amendment Act
|Article 21 A was added which made ‘Education’ a fundamental Right for children in the age-group of 6-14 years.
|88th Amendment Act
|A provision for service tax was made under Article 268-A.
|89th Amendment Act
|National Commission for SC’s and ST’s into 2 separate bodies
– National Commission for SC’s (Article 338)
– National Commission for ST’s (Article 338-A).
|91st Amendment Act
|Amended the Anti-Defection Law to strengthen it and made provisions to limit the size of the council of ministers.
|92nd Amendment Act
|4 new languages – Bodo, Dogri, Maithili, and Santhali added in the Eighth Schedule which increased the constitutionally recognized number to 22.
|93rd Amendment Act
|Reserve seats OBC’s in governmental as well as educational institutions.
|99th Amendment Act
|Formation of National Judicial Appointment Commission. However, it was declared unconstitutional and void in 2015 by the Supreme Court.
|100th Amendment Act
|Swapping of territories between India and Bangladesh.
|101st Amendment Act
|Goods and Service Tax introduced.
|102nd Amendment Act
|Constitutional Status to the National Commission for Backward Classes
|103rd Amendment Act
|10% reservation for Economically Weaker Section (EWS) of the society in Government jobs and admission in educational institutions
|104th Amendment Act
|It extends the reservation of seats for the SC’s and ST’s in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies by a period of 10 years.
– Officially it is known as ‘Constitution Act, 2019’