The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at contributing “to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development, and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication, and information. It is the successor of the League of Nations’ International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.
UNESCO has 193 member states and 11 associate members. Based in Paris, France, most of its field offices are “cluster” offices that cover three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist.
UNESCO seeks to build a culture of peace and inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication. To that end, it pursues its objectives through five major program areas: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture, and communication/information. It sponsors projects related to literacy, technical training, education, the advancement of science, promoting independent media and freedom of the press, preserving regional and cultural history, and promoting cultural diversity. UNESCO assists in translating and disseminating world literature, establishing international cooperation agreements to secure “World Heritage Sites” of cultural and natural importance, preserving human rights, and bridging the worldwide digital divide. It also launched and leads the Education for All movement and lifelong learning.
UNESCO is a member of the United Nations Development Group, a coalition of UN agencies and organizations aimed at fulfilling the Sustainable Development Goals.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are important places of cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.
There are 38 World Heritage Sites located in India. These include 30 cultural sites, seven natural sites, and one mixed-criteria site. India has the sixth-largest number of sites in the world.
|Sl.No.||Name||State/Region||Year of declaration|
|3||Agra Fort||Uttar Pradesh||1983|
|4||Taj Mahal||Uttar Pradesh||1983|
|5||Sun Temple, Konark||Puri District, Odisha||1984|
|6||Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram||Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu||1984|
|7||Kaziranga National Park||Assam||1985|
|8||Manas Wildlife Sanctuary||Assam||1985|
|9||Keoladeo National Park||Rajasthan||1985|
|10||Churches and Convents of Goa||Goa||1986|
|11||Khajuraho Group of Monuments||Madhya Pradesh||1986|
|12||Group of Monuments at Hampi||Bellari District, Karnataka||1986|
|13||Fatehpur Sikri||Uttar Pradesh||1986|
|14||Group of Monuments at Pattadakal||Bagalkot District, Kolkata||1987|
|16||Great Living Chola Temples||a)Airavateshwarar Temple, Darasuram, Tamil Nadu|
b)Brihadeeswarar Temple, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu
|17||Sundarbans National Park||West Bengal||1987|
|18||Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks||Uttarakhand||1988,2005|
|19||Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi||Madhya Pradesh||1989|
|20||Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi||Delhi||1993|
|21||Qutb Minar and its Monuments||Delhi||1993|
|22||Mountain Railways of India||a)Nilgiri Mountain Railway (2005) Ooty, Tamil Nadu|
b)Kalka-Shimla Railway, Himachal Pradesh (2008)
c)Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (1999), Darjeeling, West Bengal
|1999, 2005, 2008|
|23||Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya||Bihar||2002|
|24||Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka||Madhya Pradesh||2003|
|25||Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus||Maharashtra||2004|
|26||Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park||Gujarat||2004|
|27||Red fort Complex||Delhi||2007|
|28||The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur||Jaipur, Rajasthan||2010|
|29||Western Ghats||a)Agasthyamalai Sub-Cluster|
e)Talakaveri Sub-Cluster (five properties)
f)Kudremukh Sub-Cluster (five properties)
|30||Hill Forts of Rajasthan||a)Chittorgarh|
|31||Rani Ki Vav (The Queen’s Stepwell||Patan, Gujarat||2014|
|32||Great Himalayan National Park||Himachal Pradesh||2014|
|33||Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, Bihar||Bihar||2016|
|34||Khangchendzonga National Park||Sikkim||2016|
|35||The Architectural Work Of Le Corbusier||Chandigarh||2016|
|36||Historic City of Ahmedabad||Ahmedabad, Gujarat||2017|
|37||The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai||Maharashtra||2018|
Number of UNESCO Heritage by States
|State||Exclusive Sites||Shared Sites|