CHAPTER 5- WHEN PEOPLE REBEL 1857 AND AFTER
Answer the following questions:
1. Which was the last territory to be annexed by the British by applying the Doctrine of Lapse Policy?
Answer – Awadh.
2. When was Awadh annexed and why?
Awadh was one of the last territories to be annexed. In 1801, a subsidiary alliance was imposed on Awadh, and in 1856 it was taken over. Governor-General Dalhousie declared that the territory was being misgoverned and British rule was needed to ensure proper administration.
3. Who was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II?
Answer – Nana Saheb
4. What were the changes brought by the British for social reform in India?
The British believed that Indian society had to be reformed. Some of the changes they brought were –
- Laws were passed to stop the practice of sati and to encourage the remarriage of widows.
- English-language education was actively promoted.
5. Who declared that after the death of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the family of the king would be shifted out of the Red Fort?
In 1849, Governor-General Dalhousie announced that after the death of Bahadur Shah Zafar,
the family of the king would be shifted out of the Red Fort and given another place in Delhi to reside in.
6. According to Lord Canning in 1856, who was considered to be the last Mughal King?
Answer – Bahadur Shah Zafar.
7. During the revolt of 1857, who declared himself the new Nawab of Lucknow?
Answer – In Lucknow, Birjis Qadr, the son of the deposed Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, was proclaimed himself as the new Nawab of Lucknow.
8. When and why Mangal Pandey was hanged to death?
Answer – On 29 March 1857, a young soldier, Mangal Pandey, was hanged to death for attacking his officers in Barrackpore.
9. What was the main reason behind the mutiny by the Meerut Sepoys?
There was a rumor spread that the new cartridge used in the army drill were coated with the fat of cows and pigs, which hurt the religious sentiment of both Hindu and Muslim sepoys. So they refused to do the army drill. For disobeying their officers eighty-five sepoys were dismissed from service and sentenced to ten years in jail.
10. Whom did the Sepoy of Meerut proclaim as their leader?
Answer – The Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar.
11. Who was Begum Hazrat Mahal?
Answer – Begum Hazrat Mahal was the mother of Birjis Qadr, the son of the deposed Nawab
Wajid Ali Shah. Begum Hazrat Mahal took an active part in organising the uprising against the British. She led the revolt from Lucknow.
12. When and where did Bahadur Shah Zafar die?
Answer – Bahadur Shah Zafar died in the Rangoon jail in November 1862.
13. Name the leaders who led from the following center of revolt:
- Ramgarh, MP
- Delhi – General Bakht Khan
- Kanpur – Nana Saheb
- Lucknow – Begum Hazrat Mahal
- Bareilly – Khan Bahadur
- Bihar – Kunwar Singh
- Faizabad – Maulvi Ahmadullah
- Jhansi – Rani Laxmibai
- Ramgarh, MP – Rani Avantibai Lodhi
14. What were the important changes brought after the revolt of 1857 by the British?
- The British Parliament passed a new Act in 1858 and transferred the powers of the East India Company to the British Crown in order to ensure a more responsible management of Indian affairs.
- A member of the British Cabinet was appointed Secretary of State for India and made responsible for all matters related to the governance of India. He was given a council to advise him, called the India Council.
- The Governor-General of India was given the title of Viceroy, that is, a personal
representative of the Crown.
- All ruling chiefs of the country were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future. They were allowed to pass on their kingdoms to their heirs, including adopted sons.
However, they were made to acknowledge the British Queen as their Sovereign Paramount. Thus the Indian rulers were to hold their kingdoms as subordinates of the British Crown.
- It was decided that the proportion of Indian soldiers in the army would be reduced and the number of European soldiers would be increased. It was also decided that instead of recruiting soldiers from Awadh, Bihar, central India and south India, more soldiers
would be recruited from among the Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans.
- The land and property of Muslims was confiscated on a large scale and they were treated with suspicion and hostility. The British believed that they were responsible for the rebellion in a big way.
- The British decided to respect the customary religious and social practices of the people in India.
- Policies were made to protect landlords and zamindars and give them security of rights over their lands.