CHAPTER 3: RULING THE COUNTRYSIDE
- Short Answer Type:
1. When did the East India Company appoint as the ‘Diwan of Bengal’?
12th August 1765
2. Who had accepted the Diwani of Bengal?
3. When was the Permanent System introduced in India?
Answer – The Permanent System was introduced in India in 1793.
4. Who was the Governor-General of India when Permanent Settlement was introduced in India?
Charles-Cornwallis was the Governor-General of India when Permanent Settlement was introduced in India.
5. Who had the responsibility in Permanent Settlement to collect the revenues and paying them to the Company?
By the terms of the settlement, the rajas and taluqdars were recognized as zamindars. They were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company.
6. What did the term ‘Mahal’ mean in the Mahalwari system?
In British revenue records, mahal is a revenue estate which may be a village or a group of villages.
7. Who introduced the Mahalwari Settlement system and when?
In the North-Western Provinces of the Bengal Presidency (most of this area is now in Uttar Pradesh), an Englishman called Holt Mackenzie devised the new system which came into effect in 1822.
8. Who was the main person behind the Ryotwari System?
9. Who were ‘Ryots’?
Ryots were the cultivators.
10. The Kalamkari style of print belongs to which state?
11. Which plant has been used by the European as an alternative for the Indigo plant?
12. Is Indigo a tropical plant?
Yes, Indigo is a tropical plant.
13. Where the woad plant has been grown in Europe?
It was grown in northern Italy, southern France, and in parts of Germany and Britain.
14. When did France abolish slavery in the French Colonies?
In 1792 France abolished slavery in the French colonies.
15. What were the two main systems of indigo cultivation?
The two main systems of indigo cultivation were nij and ryoti.
16. At least what percent of the land had to be used to cultivate the indigo under the ryoti system?
At least 25 percent.
17. Who were gomasthas?
Gomasthas were the agents of the planters who had the responsibility to collect revenue from the peasants.
18. Who were the lathiyals?
Lathiyals were the lathi-wielding strongmen maintained by the planters to bully or threaten the peasants.
19. What was the main purpose of the Indigo Commission?
The main purpose of the Indigo Commission was to enquire into the system of indigo production.
20. When did Gandhi Ji visit Champaran and why?
Mahatma Gandhi visited Champaran in 1917 and launched the Champaran movement against the indigo planters
21. Where did the planters move when the indigo cultivation in Bengal was collapsed?
22. What were the different crops grown by the British in different parts of India?
The British persuaded or forced cultivators in various parts of India to produce other crops like –
- jute in Bengal,
- tea in Assam,
- sugarcane in the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh),
wheat in Punjab,
cotton in Maharashtra and Punjab,
- rice in Madras.
23. When did the ‘Blue Rebellion break out?
The ‘Blue-Rebellion’ broke out in 1859.