Section A – NCERT EXERCISE
Q. No. 1) Why are people considered a resource? (NCERT)
Anything is said to be a resource only when they are useful to humankind or satisfies human needs and it is human beings who turn any natural substance into resources with their skills, knowledge, and demands. So, people are considered a resource.
Q. No. 2) What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world? (NCERT)
The causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world can be categorised into two categories, namely –
A . Geographical Factors
- Topography: People always prefer to live on plains rather than mountains and plateaus because these areas are suitable for farming, manufacturing, and service activities.
- Climate: People usually avoid extreme climates that are very hot or very cold regions.
- Soil: Fertile soils provide suitable land for agriculture. Thus, attracts more people.
- Water: People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is easily available.
- Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits are more populated areas.
B. Social, Cultural and Economic Factors
- Social: Areas of better housing, education, and health facilities are more densely populated.
- Cultural: Places with religion or cultural significance attract people.
- Economic: Industrial areas provide employment opportunities. A large number of people are attracted to these areas.
Q. No. 3) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why? (NCERT)
The world population has grown rapidly because, with better food supplies and medicine, deaths were reducing, while the number of births still remained fairly high.
Q. No. 4) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change. (NCERT)
Among the factors influencing population change, birth rate and death rate are the major ones –
- Birth rate is the number of live births per 1,000 people and the death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people.
- Births and deaths are the natural causes of population change.
- The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country is called the natural growth rate.
- The population increase in the world is mainly due to a rapid increase in the natural growth rate.
Q. No. 4) What is meant by population composition? (NCERT)
Population composition refers to the structure of the population. The composition of the population helps us to know how many are males or females, which age group they belong to, how educated they are and what type of occupations they are employed in, what their income levels and health conditions are.
Q. No. 5) What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding the population of a country? (NCERT)
The population pyramid or an age-sex pyramid is a way of representing the population composition of a country.
A population pyramid shows
• The total population is divided into various age groups, e.g., 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, so on.
• The percentage of the total population, subdivided into males and females, in each of those groups.
Q. No. 1) Write a note on PVKY.
Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna (PKVY) was started in 2015 aiming to train one crore Indian youth from 2016 to 2020.
The objective of this scheme is to encourage aptitude towards employable skills by giving quality training to probable and existing wage earners.
Q. No. 2) In which year the Government of India created the department of Ministry of Human Resource Development?
The Government of India has created the Ministry of Human Resource Development in 1985 with an aim to improve people’s skills.
Q. No. 3) What is population distribution?
The way in which people are spread across the earth’s surface is known as population distribution.
More than 90 percent of the world’s population lives on about 30 percent of the land surface. The distribution of population in the world is extremely uneven.
Q. No. 4) What is population density?
Population density is the number of people living in a unit area of the earth’s surface. It is normally expressed as per square km.
The average density of the population in the whole world is 51 persons per square km.
Q. No. 5) What do you mean by population change?
Population change refers to a change in the number of people during a specific time in a specific area.
Q. No. 6) What do you mean by birth rate and death rate?
Birth rate is the number of live births per 1,000 people and the death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people.
Q. No. 7) What is migration?
Migration is the movement of people in and out of an area.
Q. No. 8) What is the natural growth rate?
The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country is called the natural growth rate.
Q. No. 9) What is life expectancy?
Life expectancy is the number of years that an average person can expect to live.
Q. No. 10) What are immigration and emigration?
When a person enters a new country or region, it is called immigration and when a person leaves a country, it is called emigration.
Q. No. 11) Who are immigrants and emigrants?
Emigrants are people who leave a country and Immigrants are those who arrive in a country.
Q. No. 12) Explain the population pyramid of Kenya.
The population pyramid of a country like Kenya in which birth and death rates both are high, it is broad at the base and rapidly narrows towards the top.
This is because although many children are born, a large percentage of them die in their infancy, relatively few become adults and there are very few old people.
Q. No. 13) Discuss the population pyramid of India.
For countries like India where death rates (especially amongst the very young) are decreasing, the pyramid is broad in the younger age groups, because more infants survive to adulthood.
Such populations contain a relatively large number of young people and which means a strong and expanding labour force.
Q. No. 14) Discuss the population pyramid of Japan.
In countries like Japan, low birth rates make the pyramid narrow at the base. Decreased death rates allow more numbers of people to reach old age.