THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
1. What is Constitution?
It is a document that lays down the basic rules and regulations for people and the government in the country to follow.
2. Why does a country need a constitution?
A country needs a constitution as it serves several purposes like:
- A Constitution helps serve as a set of rules and principles that all persons in a country can agree upon as the basis of the way in which they want the country to be governed.
- It defines the nature of a country’s political system. It lays out certain important guidelines that govern decision-making within these societies.
- It prevents tyranny or domination by the majority of a minority.
- It helps to protect us against certain decisions that we might take that could have an adverse effect on the larger principles that the country believes in.
3. Who is known as the ‘Father of the Indian Constitution’?
Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
4. Explain some of the key features of the Indian Constitution.
The key features of the Indian Constitution are –
- Federalism –
This refers to the existence of more than one level of government in the country. In India, there are governments at the state level and at the center. The Panchayats and the Municipalities act as the third tier of government.
- Parliamentary form of government-
It guarantees universal adult suffrage for all citizens. The people of India irrespective of his/her social background have a direct role in electing their representatives as well as a contest in elections. These representatives are accountable to the people.
- Separation of powers –
According to the Constitution, there are three organs of government i.e. the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. This helps to check and balance each other’s power.
- Fundamental Rights –
The Constitution of India provides the Fundamental Rights which guarantees the rights of individuals against the State as well as against other individuals.
5. According to the Constitution, what are the three organs of the government? Explain them.
According to the Constitution, there are three organs of government. These are the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
- The legislature refers to the elected representatives.
- The executive is a smaller group of people who are responsible for implementing laws and running the government.
- The judiciary refers to the system of courts in the country.
6. What is Federalism?
Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.
A system of government having existence of more than one level of government in the country.
7. Explain Federalism in context of India.
The Constitution of India originally provided for a two-tier system of government, the Union Government or Central Government, representing the Union of India and the State governments. Later Panchayats and Municipalities added as the third tier of government.
8. Who was the president of the Constituent Assembly of India?
Dr. Rajendra Prasad
9. Who was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly of India?
Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
10. When was the Constitution of India adopted?
26th November, 1949.
11. What was the challenges before the Constituent Assembly in making the Constitution of India?
The members of the Constituent Assembly had many challenges before them.
Some of them like –
- The country was made up of several different communities that spoke different languages, belonged to different religions, and had distinct cultures.
- There were riots and bloodshed due to the partition of the country into India and Pakistan.
- Some of the Princely States remained undecided about their future, and the socio-economic condition of the vast mass of people appeared dismal.
12. What are the Fundamental Rights mentioned in the Constitution of India? Explain them.
Fundamental Rights are the rights which guarantees the rights of individuals against the State as well as against other individuals.
The Fundamental Rights that are mentioned in the Constitution of India are the followings –
- Right to Equality:
All persons are equal before the law. This means that all persons shall be equally protected by the laws of the country. It also states that no citizen can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, caste, or sex.
- Right to Freedom:
This includes the right to freedom of speech and expression, the right to form associations, the right to move freely and reside in any part of the country, and the right to practice any profession, occupation, or business.
- Right against Exploitation:
The Constitution prohibits human trafficking, forced labor, and the employment of children under 14 years of age.
- Right to Freedom of Religion:
Religious freedom is provided to all citizens. Every person has the right to practise, profess and propagate the religion of their choice.
- Cultural and Educational Rights:
The Constitution states that all minorities, religious or linguistic, can set up their own educational institutions in order to preserve and develop their own culture.
- Right to Constitutional Remedies:
This allows citizens to move the court if they believe that any of their Fundamental Rights have been violated by the State.
13. What is the difference between the Parliamentary and the Presidential form of government?
The main difference between the Parliamentary and the Presidential form of government is that
- In the Parliamentary form of government, there are two executive heads i.e. President is the nominal head of the state whereas Prime Minister is the head of the Government.
- In the Presidential form of government, there is only one executive head i.e. the President is the head of the state as well as the head of the Government.
14. What is DPSP?
Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) of the Constitution of India are the principles that aim to ensure greater social and economic reforms and to serve as a guide to the independent Indian State to institute laws and policies that help reduce poverty of the masses.
15. What is secularism?
Secularism is a system of government in which the state does not officially promote any one religion as the state religion. Secularism refers to this separation of religion from the State.
16. What would happen if there were no restrictions on the power of elected representatives?
If there were no restrictions on the power of elected representatives, then they will misuse their power and authority. They may ignore their responsibilities as a legislature. There would have been a chance of domination of the majority on the minority. There would be an increase in injustice in society.