CHAPTER 2 – NATIONALISM IN INDIA

Table of Contents

1. How had the ‘First World War’ created economic problems in India? Explain with examples. (5)

Or,

Describe the implications of the First World War on the economic and political situation of India. (3)

Answer –

The ‘First World War’ war created a new economic and political situation, like –

  1. It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced.
  2. Through the war years prices increased doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
  3. Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
  4. Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food.
  5. This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic.
  6. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic.

People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.
At this stage, with the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi, the people of India found a new leader and followed his new mode of struggle for freedom of India against British Rule.

2. When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India? (1)

Answer –

Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915.

3. Explain four points about Gandhiji’s idea of ‘Satyagraha’. (3)

Answer –

  1. The idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
  2. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
  3. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence.
  4. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor. People – including the oppressors – had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence.
  5. By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph.
  6. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

4. When did Gandhiji organize the Satyagraha movement in Champaran and why?

Answer –

Gandhiji organized the Satyagraha movement in Champaran in 1917 to support the peasants in the struggle against the oppressive plantation system.

5. When did Gandhiji organize the Satyagraha movement in Kheda and why?

Answer –

Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed. So, in 1917, Gandhiji organized a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat.

6. When did Gandhiji organize the Satyagraha movement in Ahmedabad and why?

Answer –

In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organize a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

7. What was Rowlatt Act and when it was passed?

Answer –

Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919.

It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed the detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

8. How was Rowlatt Act opposed by the people in India? Explain with example.

Answer –

  1. Mahatma Gandhi believed that the Act was unjust and unfair. So, he to start non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
  2. Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops, and shops closed down.

9. When did the infamous Jallianwalla Bagh incident take place?

Answer – 13th April 1919.

10. Why did Gandhiji feel the need to support the Khilafat issue?

Answer –

While the Rowlatt satyagraha had been a widespread movement but it was limited mostly to cities and towns. Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. So he takes up the Khilafat issue which would bring Muslims into the satyagraha movement.

11. What was the Khilafat issue?

Answer –

The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor – the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).

12. Who were Ali Brothers?

Answer –

Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali were the Ali brother’s who were active in defending the Khalifa’s temporal powers through the Khilafat Committee which was formed in Bombay in March 1919. They supported Gandhiji to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Swaraj as well as for Khilafat.

13. Who wrote Hind Swaraj and when?

Answer – Mahatma Gandhi in 1909.

14. The Non-Cooperation Movement began on which day

  1. January , 1921
  2. November, 1921
  3. December,1921
  4. May,1921

Answer – January 1921

15. In which Congress session Non-Cooperation programme was adopted?

Answer –

Nagpur, December 1920.

16. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’? How did this movement unite the country? Explain. (5)

Answer –

Mahatma Gandhi launched the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ because of the following reasons:

  • Mahatma Gandhi believed that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of the cooperation. So, if Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse and swaraj would be achieved.
  • Indians were already suffered because of the First World War.
  • Rowlatt Act was not welcomed by Indian.

17. Explain any three effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement on the economy of India.

Answer –

The effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement on the economy of India are the followings:

  • Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
  • The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore.
  • In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
  • As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

18. How did the Non-Cooperation movement start with the participation of middle-class people in the cities? Explain its impact on the economic front. (2 + 3 = 5)

Answer –

The Non-Cooperation movement started with middle-class participation in the cities.

  • Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
  • The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.

The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic.

  • Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
  • The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore.
  • In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
  • As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

19. Describe the spread of the Non-Cooperation Movement in the countryside. (3)

Or,

How had peasants and tribals participated in the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ in different parts of India? Explain. (PY) (5)

Answer –

From the cities, the Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside. It drew into its fold the struggles of peasants and tribals which were developing in different parts of India in the years after the war.

Peasants participation in the Non-Cooperation Movement:

  • In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra, a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer.
  • The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants’ exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses.
  • The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and
    social boycott of oppressive landlords.
  • In many places nai – dhobi bandhs were organised by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of even barbers and washer men.
  • The peasants of Awadh set up the Oudh Kisan Sabha which was headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others. It was done with the idea to integrate the Awadh peasant struggle into the wider struggle.

Tribals participation in the Non-Cooperation Movement

  • Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Swaraj in another way.
  • In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, for instance, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s – not a form of struggle that the Congress could approve.
  • Here, as in other forest regions, the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits.
  • This enraged the hill people. Not only were their livelihoods affected but they felt that their traditional rights were being denied.
  • When the government began forcing them to contribute beggar for road building, the hill people revolted. The person who came to lead them was Alluri Sitaram Raju.
  • Raju talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi, said he was inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement, and persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking.
  • But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence.
  • The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving Swaraj.

20. Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ in February 1922? Explain any three reasons. (3)

Answer –

Gandhiji decided to withdraw the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ because of the following reasons:

  • In Chauri Chaura, Gorakhpur, a peaceful demonstration in a bazaar turned into a violent clash with the police which resulted into killing of several policemen.
  • He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.
  • Within the Congress, some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set
    up by the Government of India Act of 1919.

21. How did plantation workers have their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj? Explain. (PY) (5)

Or,

How the tea plantation workers of Assam interpret the notion of Swaraj?

Answer –

  • For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
  • Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission.
  • When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
  • They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages.

22. Who was Baba Ramchandra?

Answer –

Baba Ramchandra was a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer. He led the movement for the peasants of Awadh against the talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. He also set up Oudh Kisan Sabha along with Jawaharlal Nehru so that peasants could be integrated into the wider struggle if needed.

23. Write a short note on Alluri Sitaram Raju.

Or,

Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju? Explain his role in inspiring the rebels with Gandhiji’s idea. (1 +3 = 4)

Answer –

  • Alluri Sitaram Raju led a militant guerrilla movement in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he had a variety of special powers like he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive
    even bullet shots.
  • Captivated by Raju, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God.
  • Raju talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi, said he was inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement, and persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking.
  • But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence.
  • The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.
  • Raju was captured and executed in 1924, and over time became a folk hero.

23. What was the Inland emigration Act 1859?

Answer –

Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.

24. When did the Chauri-Chaura incident take place and what was the incident?

Answer –

The Chauri-Chaura incident took place in 1922.
At Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur, a peaceful demonstration in a bazaar turned into a violent clash with the police and resulted in the killing of several policemen.

25. Who formed the Swaraj Party?

Answer –

C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party.

26. Why did the Simon Commission come to India? (1)

Answer –

In response to the nationalist movement, the Tory government in Britain constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon. Its main objective was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. The problem was that the commission did not have a single Indian member. They were all British.

27. What was the problem with Simon Commission?

Answer –

The problem was that the commission did not have a single Indian member. They were
all British.

28. Which Viceroy announced a vague offer of ‘dominion status’ for India in October 1929?

Answer –

Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of ‘dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future, and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution.

29. Why Gandhiji demanded to abolish the Salt tax?

Answer –

Gandhiji believed that salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food. The tax on salt and the government’s monopoly over its production revealed the most oppressive face of British rule. So, Gandhiji demanded to abolish the Salt tax.

30. Write a short note on Salt March.

Answer –

Gandhiji believed that salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food. So, the tax on salt and the government’s monopoly over its production revealed the most oppressive face of British rule. So, he decided to go on a march to Dandi and break the law by making salt himself.

  • Mahatma Gandhi started his famous salt march accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers.
  • The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi.
  • The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day.
  • Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and he told them what he meant by Swaraj and urged them to peacefully defy the British.
  • On 6 April he reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
  • This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

31. How did ‘Salt March’ become an effective tool of resistance against colonialism? Explain. (3)

Answer –

The ‘Salt March’ ended at Dandi where Gandhiji ceremonially violated the Salt Tax law by manufacturing salt by boiling seawater and thus marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

  • With this event thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
  • As the movement spread, foreign cloth was boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed.
  • Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes, village officials resigned.
  • In many places forest people violated forest laws – going into Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle.

With all this ‘Salt March’ became an effective tool of resistance against colonialism.

32. How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer –

In Civil Disobedience Movement, people were not only asked to refuse cooperation with the British, as they had done in the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921-22 but also break the colonial laws.

33. Why did Mahatma Gandhi start the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement? How did this movement unite the country? Explain. (5)

Answer –

Gandhiji made eleven demands to Irwin and one of them was to abolish the Salt Tax. All these eleven demands were ignored by Irwin. So by breaking the Salt Tax law, he wanted people not only to refuse cooperation with the British, as they had done in the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921-22 but also break the colonial laws. So, Mahatma Gandhi started the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement

Various sections of people like industrialists, rich or poor peasants, tribals and many others were suffering because of the injustice and unfair laws of the British Government. So when Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience Movement they all came along with Gandhiji with their own aspects to get rid of the laws. In this way, Civil Disobedience Movement helped to unite all Indians.

34. Explain the circumstances under which Gandhiji decided to call off Civil Disobedience Movement. (3)

Answer –

  • With the development of Civil Disobedience Movement, the colonial government got worried and began arresting the Congress leaders one by one. This led to violent clashes in many palaces.
  • When Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi, was arrested in April 1930, angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
  • A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, lawcourts and railway stations – all structures that symbolised British rule.
  • A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 100,000
    people were arrested.

In such a situation, Mahatma Gandhi once again decided to call off the movement

35. How did the Colonial Government repress the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain. (5)

Answer –

  • With the development of Civil Disobedience Movement, the colonial government got worried and began arresting the Congress leaders one by one. This led to violent clashes in many palaces.
  • When Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi, was arrested in April 1930, angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
  • A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, lawcourts and railway stations – all structures that symbolised British rule.
  • A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 100,000
    people were arrested.
  • All this made Gandhiji to enter into a pact with Irwin and end the Civil Disobedience Movement.

36. What was Gandhi-Irwin Pact?

Answer –

On 5 March 1931, Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the movement and entered into a pact with Irwin. By this Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference (the Congress had boycotted the first Round Table Conference) in London and the government agreed to release the political prisoners.

37. Define the term ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’. Describe the participation of rich and poor communities in the Civil Disobedience Movement. (5)

Answer –

In Civil Disobedience Movement, people were not only asked to refuse cooperation with the British, as they had done in the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921-22 but also break the colonial laws.

Rich peasants participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement

  • In the countryside, rich peasant communities like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh were active in the movement.
  • Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
  • As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.
  • And the refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment.
  • These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organising their communities, and at times forcing reluctant members, to participate in the boycott programmes.
  • For them the fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.

But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised. So when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them refused to participate.

Poor peasants participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement

  • The poorer peasantry were not just interested in the lowering of the revenue demand.
  • Many of them were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from landlords.
  • As the Depression continued and cash incomes dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rent.
  • They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted.
  • They joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists.

Apprehensive of raising issues that might upset the rich peasants and landlords, Congress was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns in most places. So the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.

38. Describe the role of the poor peasantry in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’. (3)

Answer –

Role of the poor peasantry in the Civil Disobedience Movement

  • The poorer peasantry were not just interested in the lowering of the revenue demand.
  • Many of them were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from landlords.
  • As the Depression continued and cash incomes dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rent.
  • They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted.
  • They joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists.

Apprehensive of raising issues that might upset the rich peasants and landlords, Congress was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns in most places. So the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.

39. Describe the role of the rich peasant community in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.(3)

Answer –

Role of the rich peasant in the Civil Disobedience Movement

  • In the countryside, rich peasant communities like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh were active in the movement.
  • Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
  • As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.
  • And the refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment.
  • These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organising their communities, and at times forcing reluctant members, to participate in the boycott programmes.
  • For them the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.

But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised. So when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them refused to participate.

40. Describe the role of women in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’. (3)

Answer –

The role of women in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’:

  • There was a large-scale participation of women the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him.
  • They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
  • Many went to jail.
  • In urban areas these women were from high-caste families; in rural areas they came from rich peasant households.
  • Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.

41. “Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement” – Explain the statement. (3)

Answer –

  • For long the Congress had ignored the dalits, for fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus.
  • Many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community.
  • They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils.
  • Political empowerment, they believed, would resolve the problems of their social disabilities.


So, Dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement was limited, particularly in the Maharashtra and Nagpur region where their organisation was quite strong.

42. Who had organized the Dalits into the ‘Depressed Class Association’ in 1930? Describe his achievements. (5)

Answer –

Dr B.R. Ambedkar organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930.

Achievements of Dr B.R. Ambedkar –

  • He clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits which the resulted the Poona Pact of September 1932.
  • It gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Schedule Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

43. Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain. (2 + 3 = 5)

Answer –

Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives. It was keen only on their symbolic presence. So, for a long time, Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation.

The role of women in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’:

  • There was a large-scale participation of women the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him.
  • They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
  • Many of them went to jail.
  • In urban areas these women were from high-caste families; in rural areas they came from rich peasant households.
  • Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.

44. Explain the attitude of the Indian merchants and the industrialists towards the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.(5)

Answer –

The role and attitude of the Indian merchants and the industrialists in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’:

  • During the First World War, they had made huge profits and become powerful and keen on expanding their business.
  • They now reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities.
  • They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
  • To organise business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
  • Led by prominent industrialists like Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G. D. Birla,the industrialists attacked colonial control over the Indian economy, and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched.
  • They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
  • Most businessmen came to see Swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
  • But after the failure of the Round Table Conference, business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic.
  • They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities, and worried about prolonged disruption of business, as well as of the growing influence of socialism amongst the younger members of the Congress.

45. What was Civil Disobedience Movement? Evaluate the role of business classes in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Answer –

In Civil Disobedience Movement, people were not only asked to refuse cooperation with the British, as they had done in the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921-22 but also break the colonial laws.

The role of the Indian merchants and the industrialists in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’:

  • During the First World War, they had made huge profits and become powerful and keen on expanding their business.
  • They now reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities.
  • They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
  • To organise business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
  • Led by prominent industrialists like Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G. D. Birla,the industrialists attacked colonial control over the Indian economy, and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched.
  • They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
  • Most businessmen came to see Swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.

46. Why did the industrial workers do not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? (1)

Answer –

The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement as Congress were closer to the industrialists and they (Congress) felt that this would alienate industrialists and divide the anti-imperial forces.

47. Explain the limitations of the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’. (5)

Answer –

The limitations of the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’ are the following:

  • Not all social groups were moved by the abstract concept of Swaraj.
  • ‘Untouchables’ who called themselves dalit or oppressed had been ignored by the Congress for long time as they were feared of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus.
  • Muslim political organisations in India were lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was thus an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities.
  • Different section of people had different aspiration, so there was lack of unity in the movement.

48. Name the association formed by Dr B.R. Ambedkar for Dalits in 1930. (1)

Answer –

Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930.

49. Who led the Bardoli Satyagraha?

Answer –

In 1928, Vallabhbhai Patel led the peasant movement in Bardoli, a taluka in Gujarat, against the enhancement of land revenue. Known as the Bardoli Satyagraha, this movement was a success under the able leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel. The struggle was widely publicised and generated immense sympathy in many parts of India.

50. In which Round Table Conference did Gandhiji participate?

Answer –

Gandhiji participated in the Second Round Table Conference.

51. What led Gandhiji and Ambedkar to sign the Poona Pact of 1932?

Answer –

  • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.
  • When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death.
  • He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.
  • Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.

52. Describe the main features of the ‘Poona Pact’. (3)

Answer –

  • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.
  • When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death.
  • He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.

Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.

It gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Scheduled Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

53. How had a variety of cultural processes developed a sense of collective belongingness in India during the 19th century? Explain with examples. (5)

Answer –

  • The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles and partly through the variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.
  • History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.
  • The identity of the nation is most often symbolised in a figure or image. This helps create an image with which people can identify the nation.
  • It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
  • Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
  • Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.
  • As the national movement developed, nationalist leaders became more and more aware of such icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
  • During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
  • By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolor (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
  • Another means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history.

54. Who was the first to draw the image of Bharat Mata?

Answer –

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

55. Who published a four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, ‘The Folklore of Southern India’?

Answer –

In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, ‘The Folklore of Southern India’.

56. Who wrote Vande Mataram? (1)

Answer –

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

57. Certain events are given below. Choose the appropriate chronological order: (1)
1. Coming of Simon Commission to India
2. Demand of Purna Swaraj in Lahore Session of INC
3. Government of India Act, 1919
4. Champaran Satyagraha
Choose the correct option :
(a) 3 – 2 – 4 – 1 (b) 1 – 2 – 4 – 3
(c) 2 – 3 – 1 – 4 (d) 4 – 3 – 1 – 2

Answer –

Option – (d) 4 – 3 – 1 – 2

58. Describe any three major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of the Non-Cooperation Movement. (3)

Answer –

Problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of the Non-Cooperation Movement are the following:

  • Talukdars and landlords demanded exorbitantly high rents from
    peasants and imposed a variety of other cesses on them.
  • Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords’ farms without any payment.
  • As tenants they had no security of tenure, being regularly evicted so that they could acquire no right over the leased land.
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