Chapter- 4 Agriculture
Answer the following questions:
Q. No. 1) What are the different types of farming systems practiced in India?
The farming system practiced in India can be categorized as –
- Subsistence farming
- Primitive subsistence farming
- Intensive subsistence farming
2. Commercial farming
Q. No. 2) In which type of farming, do farmers use tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks?
Primitive subsistence farming
Q. No. 3) By what name the ‘Slash and burning’ agricultural is known in the following countries –
- Mexico and Central America
- Central Africa
- Mexico and Central America – Milpa
- Venezuela – Conuco
- Brazil – Roca
- Central Africa – Masule
- Indonesia – Ladang
- Vietnam – Ray
Q. No. 4) By what name the ‘Slash and burning’ agricultural is known in the following countries –
- Andhra Pradesh
- Western Ghats
- South-eastern Rajasthan
- Himalayan Belt
- North-East Region
- MP – Bewar or Dahiya
- Andhra Pradesh – Podu or Penda
- Odisha – Pama Dabi/ Koman/ Bringa
- Western Ghats – Kumari
- South-eastern Rajasthan – Valre or Waltre
- Himalayan Belt – Khil
- Jharkhand – Kuruwa
- North-East Region – Jhumming
Q. No. 5) What is the main characteristic of commercial farming?
The main characteristic of this type of farming is the use of higher doses of modern inputs,
e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.
Q. No. 6) Name one crop which is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab but a subsistence crop in Odisha.
Answer – Rice
Q. No. 7) How many cropping seasons are there in India? Name them.
India has three cropping seasons — Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
Q. No. 8) What is the sowing and harvesting time of the Rabi crop?
Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June.
Q. No. 9) What is the sowing and harvesting time of the Kharif crop?
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and these are harvested in September-October.
Q. No. 10) Which Indian states mainly benefited from the Green Revolution?
Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
Q. No. 11) In which states of India, three crops of paddy can be grown?
In states like Assam, West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman and Boro.
Q. No. 12) What is Zaid season?
In between the rabi and the kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season.
Q. No. 13) Name some zaid crops.
Some of the zaid crops are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.
Q. No. 14) Which crop takes almost one year to grow?
Answer – Sugar-cane.
Q. No. 15) What are the suitable conditions required for the cultivation of rice?
The suitable conditions required for the cultivation of the rice are –
- It is a Kharif crop which requires high temperatures, (above 25°C) and
- It requires high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In areas with less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation.
- It requires the stagnancy of water in its early stage.
- It grows well in alluvial soil.
Q. No. 16) In which part of India rice grows well?
Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.
The development of a dense network of canal irrigation and tube wells has made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
Q. No. 17) What are the suitable conditions required for the cultivation of wheat?
The suitable conditions required for the cultivation of wheat are –
- It requires a cool growing season.
- It requires bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
- It requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season.
Q. No. 18) In which part of India wheat grows well?
There are two important wheat-growing zones in the country – the Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-west and the black soil region of the Deccan. The major wheat-producing states are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan.
Q. No. 19) What are the suitable conditions required for the cultivation of the maize?
The suitable conditions required for the cultivation of the maize are –
- It is a Kharif crop and requires a temperature between 21°C to 27°C.
- It grows well in old alluvial soil.
Q. No. 20) What are the millets grown in India?
Jowar, bajra and ragi are important millets grown in India.
Q. No. 21) Which crop is known as coarse grains?
Answer – Millets are also known as coarse grains.
Q. No. 22) Which country is the largest producer and consumer of pulse in the world?
India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world.
Q. No. 23) Name a crop which is kharif crop in North and rabi crop in South India.
Sesamum is a Kharif crop in North and a rabi crop in South India.
Q. No. 24) What are the suitable conditions required for the cultivation of the tea?
The suitable conditions required for the cultivation of the tea are –
- The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
- Tea bushes require a warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
- Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves.
- Tea is a labour-intensive industry. It requires abundant, cheap and skilled labour.
Q. No. 25) What are the suitable conditions required for the cultivation of rubber?
The suitable conditions required for the cultivation of the rubber are –
- It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas.
- It requires a moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm. and temperature above 25°C.
Q. No. 26) What are the major fibre crops grown in India?
Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India.
Q. No. 27) What is sericulture?
The rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.
Q. No. 28) Which natural fibre is known as ‘Golden fibre’?
Jute is known as the golden fibre.
Q. No. 29) What are the suitable conditions required for the cultivation of the jute?
The suitable conditions required for the cultivation of the jute are –
- Jute grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.
- High temperature is required during the time of growth.
Q. No. 30) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production. (NCERT)
Since the independence of India, several initiatives had been taken by the government to increase agricultural production in India. Some of them are the followings –
- ‘Land reform’ was the main focus of our First Five Year Plan.
- The Government of India embarked upon introducing agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s. The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve a lot of Indian agriculture.
- Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease, the establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.
- Kissan Credit Card (KCC), and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers.
- Moreover, special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.
- The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
Q. No. 31) Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture. (NCERT)
Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. It was there at the time of colonisation. In the nineteenth century when European traders came to India, at that time too, Indian spices were exported to different countries of the world and farmers of south India were encouraged to grow these crops. Till today it is one of the important items of export from India.
During the British period, cotton belts of India attracted the British and ultimately cotton was exported to Britain as a raw material for their textile industries. Cotton textile industry in Manchester and Liverpool flourished due to the availability of good-quality cotton from India. You have read about the Champaran movement which started in 1917 in Bihar. This was started because farmers of that region were forced to grow indigo on their land because it was necessary for the textile industries which were located in Britain. They were unable to grow foodgrains to sustain their families.
Under globalisation, particularly after 1990, the farmers in India have been exposed to new challenges. Despite being an important producer of rice, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, jute and spices our agricultural products are not able to compete with the developed countries because of the highly subsidised agriculture in those countries.
Q. No. 32) Who started the ‘Bhoodan-Gramdan’ movement?
This Bhoodan-Gramdan movement was initiated by Vinoba Bhave.
Q. No. 33) Write a short note on the ‘Bhoodan-Gramdan’ movement.
- This Bhoodan-Gramdan movement initiated by Vinoba Bhave is also known as the Blood-less Revolution.
- Shri Ram Chandra Reddy stood up and offered 80 acres of land to be distributed among 80 land-less villagers. This act was known as ‘Bhoodan’.
- Later he travelled and introduced his ideas widely all over India. Some zamindars, owners of many villages offered to distribute some villages among the landless. It was known as Gramdan. However, many land-owners chose to provide some part of their land to poor farmers due to the fear of the land ceiling act.
Q. No. 34) Who has been declared by Mahatma Gandhi as his spiritual heir?
Mahatma Gandhi declared Vinoba Bhave as his spiritual heir.
Q. No. 35) Name two bio-diesel crops.
Answer – Jatropha and Jojoba.
Q. No. 36) Compare ‘intensive subsistence farming’ with that of ‘commercial farming’ practiced in India. (5)
|Intensive subsistence farming|
|1. It is practiced in small plot of land.||1. It is practiced in much larger plot of land.|
|2. Mainly primitive tools are used.||2. Modern and heavy machineries used.|
|3. Family members provide labour.||3. Farm labourers employed.|
|4. More pressure on land.||4. Comparatively lesser pressure on land than intensive subsistence farming.|
|5. This type of farming is mainly practiced for consumption required by family.||5. This type of farming is mainly practiced for selling the product in market.|
|5. Product output is low.||5. Product output is high.|
Q. No. 37) Describe any three main features of Rabi crop seasons. (3)
Main features of Rabi crops are –
- Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December.
- It is harvested in summer from April to June.
- availability of precipitation during winter months due to the western temperate cyclones helps in the success of these crops.
- These crops require low temperature.
- Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.
Q. No. 38) Describe any three main features of Kharif crop seasons. (3)
Main features of kharif crop seasons are –
- Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country.
- these crops are harvested in September-October.
- these crops require high rainfall.
- these crops require high temperature.
- important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean.