CHAPTER 1: RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
- Define resource.
Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible, and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
2. Classify resources on the basis of origin. (1)
On the basis of origin, the types of resources are –
a) Biotic Resources – human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock, etc.
b) Abiotic Resources – rocks and metals.
3. Classify resources on the basis of exhaustibility. (1)
On the basis of exhaustibility, the types of resources are –
a) Renewable Resources – solar and wind energy, water, forests, and wildlife, etc.
b) Non-Renewable Resources – Minerals and fossil fuels.
4. What are the problems developed due to the indiscriminate use of resources by humans?
The problems developed due to the indiscriminate use of resources by humans are –
- Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of a few individuals.
- Accumulation of resources in few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two segments i.e. haves and have-nots or rich and poor.
- Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global
warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution, and land degradation.
5. What is Sustainable development?
Sustainable development –
Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.
6. What was the objective of the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992?
The Summit was convened for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development at the global level.
The assembled leaders signed the Declaration on Global Climatic Change and Biological Diversity. The Rio Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st century
7. What was Agenda 21?
It is the declaration signed by world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
It aims at achieving global sustainable development. It is an agenda to combat environmental damage, poverty, and disease through global cooperation on common interests, mutual needs, and shared responsibilities.
One major objective of the Agenda 21 is that every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.
8. What is Resource Planning?
Describe the different steps of ‘resource planning’.
Answer – Resource Planning
Resource planning is a complex process that involves:
- Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping, and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
- Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill, and institutional setup for implementing resource development plans.
- Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
9. Why is resource planning needed in India?
The availability of resources is a necessary condition for the development of any region, but the mere availability of resources in the absence of corresponding changes in technology and institutions may hinder development.
There are many regions in our country that are rich in resources but these are included economically backward regions. On the contrary, there are some regions that have a poor resource base but are economically developed.
So proper resource planning is needed for India so that resources could not accumulate in a few hands and every region of India should have an equal chance of development.
10. Describe the importance of judicious use of resources.
Why do we need to conserve resources?
Resources are vital for any developmental activity. But irrational consumption and overutilization of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is important.
11. Why is it important to use land with careful planning?
Land is a natural resource of utmost importance. It supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, transport, and communication systems.
But, land is an asset of a finite magnitude, so, it is important to use the available land for various purposes with careful planning.
12. Highlight the reason for land being known as an utmost important natural resource.
For what purposes the land resources are used?
Land resources are used for the following purposes:
- Land not available for cultivation
(a) Barren and wasteland
(b) Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.
- Other uncultivated lands (excluding fallow land)
(a) Permanent pastures and grazing land,
(b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in the net sown area),
(c) Cultruable wasteland (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).
- Fallow lands
(a) Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),
(b) Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).
- Net sown area
Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus the net sown area is known as gross cropped area.
13. What is Net Sown Area?
Net Area Sown represents the total area sown with crops and orchards. The area sowed more than once in the same year is counted only once.
14. What is Gross Cropped Area?
Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus the net sown area(NSA) is known as gross cropped area.
15. What is Culturable Waste Land?
Land which is left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years is known as Culturable wasteland.
16. What is Current Fallow Land?
Land which is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year is known as Current fallow land.
17. What are the factors which determine the use of land?
The use of land is determined by –
a) physical factors such as topography, climate, and soil types.
b) human factors such as population density, technological capability, culture, traditions, etc.
18. How can over-irrigation cause land degradation?
How is over-irrigation responsible for land degradation in Punjab? (1)
Due to over-irrigation, water gets logged in the agricultural field for a longer period which increases the salinity and alkalinity of the soil which results in land degradation.
19. How is the cement industry responsible for land degradation?
Mineral processing like the grinding of limestone for the cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.
20. Mention some of the human activities which cause land degradation.
Some human activities which cause land degradation are the followings –
- Deforestation, overgrazing, mining and quarrying have contributed significantly to land degradation.
- Over-irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
- Mineral processing like the grinding of limestone for the cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.
- In recent years, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land pollution in many parts of the country.
21. Mention some of the ways by which the problem of land degradation can be solved?
There are many ways to solve the problem of land degradation. Some of them are –
- Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help to some extent.
- Planting shelter belts of plants, controlling overgrazing, stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes are some of the methods to check land degradation in arid areas.
- Proper management of wastelands, control of mining activities, and proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.
22. What are the factors which contribute to the formation of soil?
- Relief, parent rock or bedrock, climate, vegetation, and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
- Various forces of nature such as changes in temperature, actions of running water, wind, and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc. contribute to the formation of soil.
- Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important.
23. Where the alluvial soils can be found in India?
- This is the most widely spread and important soil in India.
- The entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil. These have been deposited by three important Himalayan river systems– the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra.
- These soils also extend in Rajasthan and Gujarat through a narrow corridor.
- Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains, particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Kaveri rivers.
24. What are the characteristics of alluvial soil?
Describe any three main features of ‘Alluvial soil’ found in India.
The characteristics of the alluvial soil are the followings –
- The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt, and clay.
- Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile.
- Mostly these soils contain adequate proportions of potash, phosphoric acid, and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat, and other cereal and pulse crops.
- Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline.
25. Which soil is found in the Piedmont plains?
In the upper reaches of the river valley i.e. near the place of the break of slope, the alluvial soil is coarse. Such soils are found in piedmont plains such as Duars, Chos, and Terai.
26. Differentiate Khadar and Bangar soil.
|Khadar soil||Bangar soil|
26. Name some crops which are best grown in alluvial soil.
Crops that are best grown in alluvial soil are sugarcane, paddy, wheat, and other cereal and pulse crops.
27. Which type of soil in India is most widespread and important?
28. Which soil is also known as regur soil?
Black soils are also known as regur soils.
29. Where the black soils can be found in India?
Black soil is typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over northwest Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flows. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh and extend in the south-east direction along the Godavari and the Krishna valleys.
30. Which crop grows best in black soil?
Black soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil.
31. What are the characteristics of black soil?
Describe any three main features of ‘Black soil’ found in India.
- The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material.
- They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture.
- They are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash, and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents.
- They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil.
- These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.
32. In which parts of India, the red and yellow soil can be found?
Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau. Yellow and red soils are also found in parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain, and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.
* These soils develop a reddish colour due to the diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
33. Write a short note on Laterite soil.
- The laterite soil develops under tropical and subtropical climates with alternate wet and dry seasons.
- This soil is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain.
- Lateritic soils are mostly deep to very deep, acidic (pH<6.0), and generally deficient in plant nutrients.
- It occurs mostly in southern states, the Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, Odisha, some parts of West Bengal, and the North-East regions.
- Where these soils support deciduous and evergreen forests, it is humus-rich, but under sparse vegetation and in a semi-arid environment, it is generally humus poor.
- They are prone to erosion and degradation due to their position on the landscape.
- After adopting appropriate soil conservation techniques, particularly in the hilly areas of Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, this soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee.
- Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala are more suitable for crops like cashew nuts.
34. In which parts of India, the laterite soil can be found?
The laterite soil occurs mostly in southern states, the Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, Odisha, some parts of West Bengal, and the North-East regions.
35. Give one example of the main commercial crop cultivable in laterite soil. (1)
Cashew nut, tea, and coffee.
36. Which type of soil is most suitable for growing the crop of cashew nut? (1)
Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala are more suitable for crops like cashew nuts.
37. Write a short note on Arid soil.
- Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
- They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
- In some areas, the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water.
- Due to the dry climate, and high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.
- The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards.
- The Kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water.
- After proper irrigation, these soils become cultivable as has been in the case of western Rajasthan.
38. Write a short note on Forest soil.
- These soils are found in hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rainforests are available.
- The soil’s texture varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed.
- They are loamy and silty on valley sides and coarse-grained on the upper slopes.
- In the snow-covered areas of the Himalayas, these soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content.
- The soils found in the lower parts of the valleys, particularly on the river terraces and alluvial fans are fertile.
39. What is soil erosion?
The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion.
40. What are gullies?
Or, What is Bad Lands?
Or, What are Ravines?
The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels known as gullies.
The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land.
In the Chambal basin, such lands are called ravines.
41. What is Sheet erosion?
When water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope, the top soil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion.
42. What is contour ploughing?
Highlight the importance of contour ploughing.
Ploughing along the contour lines is called contour ploughing.
It can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes and reduces soil erosion.
43. What is strip cropping?
When large fields are divided into strips and strips of grass are left to grow between the crops, the strips of grass break up the force of the wind and help to reduce soil erosion. This method is known as strip cropping.
44. What is shelter belt?
When trees are planted in a line, it helps to break the force of wind and helps to reduce soil erosion. Rows of such trees are called shelterbelts.
These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in stabilizing the desert in western India.
45. Mention some of the ways which can be used in agriculture practice to reduce soil erosion.
Some of the ways which can be used in agricultural practice to reduce soil erosion are –
- Plowing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes.
This is called contour plowing.
- Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces.
- Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as strip cropping.
- Planting lines of trees to create shelter also works in a similar way. Rows of such trees are called shelterbelts. These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in stabilizing the desert in western India.
46. Table for soil types and the crops that can be grown in these soils in India.
|Type of soil||Crops|
|1.||Alluvial soil||Sugarcane, paddy, wheat, other cereal, and pulse crops.|
|2.||Black soil||Cotton, sugarcane, millet, etc.|
|3.||Laterite soil||Tea, coffee, cashew nut, etc.|
|4.||Red and yellow soil||Wheat, oilseeds, millet, pulses, etc.|
|5.||Arid soil||Wheat, millet, pulses, barley, maize, etc.|
|6.||Forest and mountainous soil||Tea, spices, wheat, maize, tropical fruits, etc.|