CHAPTER 1: RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT

Table of Contents

1.Define resource.

Answer –

Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.

2. What are the types of the resources on the basis of origin? Define them.

Answer –

On the Basis of Origin, types of resources are –
Biotic Resources:

These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.
Abiotic Resources:

All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks and metals.

3. What are biotic resources? Give examples.

Biotic Resources:

These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.

4. What are abiotic resources? Give examples.

Abiotic Resources:

All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks and metals.

5. What are the types of the resources on the basis of exhaustibility? Define them.

Answer –

On the Basis of Exhaustibility, types of resources are –
Renewable Resources:

The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical, or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests, and wildlife, etc. The renewable resource may further be divided into continuous or flow.
Non-Renewable Resources:

These occur over a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.

6. What are Renewable resources? Give examples.

Renewable Resources:

The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical, or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests, and wildlife, etc. The renewable resource may further be divided into continuous or flow.

7. What are Non-renewable resources? Give examples.

Non-Renewable Resources:

These occur over a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.

8. What are the types of the resources on the basis of ownership? Define them.

On the Basis of Ownership, types of resources are –
Individual Resources:

These are also owned privately by individuals. Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by the government against the payment of revenue. In villages, there are people with land ownership but there are many who are landless. Urban people own plots, houses, and other property. Plantation, pasture lands, ponds, water in wells, etc. are some of the examples of resource ownership by individuals.
Community Owned Resources:

There are resources that are accessible to all the members of the community. Village commons (grazing grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds in urban areas are de facto accessible to all the people living there.
National Resources:

Technically, all the resources belong to the nation. The country has legal powers to acquire even private property for the public good. Urban Development Authorities get empowered by the government to acquire land. All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries, and oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the coast termed as territorial water, and resources therein belong to the nation.
International Resources:

There are international institutions which regulate some resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilize these without the concurrence of international institutions.

9. What are Individual resources? Give examples.

Individual Resources:

These are also owned privately by individuals. Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by government against the payment of revenue. In villages there are people with land ownership but there are many who are landless. Urban people own plots, houses and other property. Plantation, pasture lands, ponds, water in wells etc. are some of the examples of resources ownership by individuals.

10. What are Community owned resources? Give examples.

OR
Give one example of the Community Owned Resources.

Community Owned Resources:

There are resources that are accessible to all the members of the community. Village commons (grazing grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds in urban areas are de facto accessible to all the people living there.

11. What are National resources? Give examples.

National Resources:

Technically, all the resources belong to the nation. The country has legal powers to acquire even private property for public good. Urban Development Authorities get empowered by the government to acquire land. All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries and oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the coast termed as territorial water and resources therein belong to the nation.

12. What are International resources? Give examples.

International Resources:

There are international institutions which regulate some resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilize these without the concurrence of international institutions.

13. What are the types of the resources on the basis of the status of the development? Define them.

On the Basis of the Status of Development, types of resources are –
Potential Resources:

Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilized are called Potential resource.
For example, the western parts of India particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far these have not been developed properly.
Developed Resources:

Resources that are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilization are called Developed resources. The development of resources depends on technology and the level of their feasibility.
Stock:

Materials in the environment that have the potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these, are included among stock. For example, water is a compound of two gases; hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen can be used as a rich source of energy. But we do not have advanced technical ‘know-how’ to use it for this purpose. Hence, it can be considered as stock.
Reserves:

Reserves are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements. River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is being utilized only to a limited extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests, etc. is a reserve that can be used in the future.

14. What are Potential resources? Give examples.

Potential Resources:

Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilized.
For example, the western parts of India particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far these have not been developed properly.

15. What are Developed resources? Give examples.

Developed Resources:

Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilization. The development of resources depends on technology and level of their feasibility.

16. What are Stock? Give examples.

Stock:

Materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these, are included among stock. For example, water is a compound of two gases; hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen can be used as a rich source of energy. But we do not have advanced technical ‘know-how’ to use it for this purpose. Hence, it can be considered as stock.

17. What are Reserves? Give examples.

Reserves – Reserves are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements. River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is being utilized only to a limited extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests, etc. is a reserve that can be used in the future.

18. What are the problems developed due to the indiscriminate use of resources by human?

Answer –

The problems developed due to the indiscriminate use of resources by human are –

  • Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of a few individuals.
  • Accumulation of resources in few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two segments i.e. haves and have nots or rich and poor.
  • Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global
    warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution, and land degradation.

19. What is Sustainable development?

Answer –

Sustainable development
Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.

20. What was Agenda 21?

Agenda 21-
It is the declaration signed by world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It aims at achieving global sustainable development. It is an agenda to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global cooperation on common interests, mutual needs, and shared responsibilities. One major objective of the Agenda 21 is that every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.

21. What is Resource Planning?

Or,

Describe the different steps of ‘resource planning.

Answer – Resource Planning
Resource planning is a complex process that involves:

  1. Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping, and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
  2. Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill, and institutional setup for implementing resource development plans.
  3. Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

22. Why is resource planning needed in India?

Answer –

The availability of resources is a necessary condition for the development of any region, but mere availability of resources in the absence of corresponding changes in technology and institutions may hinder development. There are many regions in our country that are rich in resources but these are included in economically backward regions. On the contrary there are some regions which have a poor resource base but they are economically developed.

So proper resource planning is needed for India so that resources could not accumulate in few hands and every region of India should have equal chance of development.

23. Describe the importance of judicious use of resources.

Or,

Why we need to conserve resources?

Resources are vital for any developmental activity. But irrational consumption and overutilization of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is important.

24. How land is a resource?

Answer-
We live on land, we perform our economic activities on land and we use it in different ways. Thus, the land is a natural resource of utmost importance. It supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, transport, and communication systems. However, the land is an asset of a finite magnitude, therefore, it is important to use the available land for various purposes with careful planning.

25. Highlight the reason for land being known as an utmost important natural resource.
OR

For what purposes the land resources are used for?

Land resources are used for the following purposes:

  1. Forests
  2. Land not available for cultivation
    (a) Barren and wasteland
    (b) Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.
  3. Other uncultivated lands (excluding fallow land)
    (a) Permanent pastures and grazing land,
    (b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in the net sown area),
    (c) Cultruable wasteland (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).
  4. Fallow lands
    (a) Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),
    (b) Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).
  5. Net sown area
    Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus the net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

26. What is Net Sown Area?

Answer –

Net Area Sown represents the total area sown with crops and orchards. Area sowed more than once in the same year is counted only once.

27. What is Gross Cropped Area?

Answer –

Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

28. What is Cultruable Waste Land?

Answer –

Land which is left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years is known as Cultruable waste land.

29. What is Current Fallow Land?

Answer –

Land which is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year is known as Current fallow land.

30. What are the factors which determined the use of land?

Answer –

The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, and soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture, and traditions, etc.

31. Mention some of the human activities which causes the land degradation.

Answer-
Some human activities which causes the land degradation are the followings –

  • Deforestation, over grazing, mining and quarrying have contributed significantly in land degradation.
  • Over irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
  • The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.
  • In recent years, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land pollution in many parts of the country.

32. Mention some of the ways with which the problem of land degradation can be solved?

There are many ways to solve the problems of land degradation. Some of them are –

  1. Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help to some extent.
  2. Planting shelter belts of plants, control overgrazing, stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes are some of the methods to check land degradation in arid areas.
  3. Proper management of wastelands, control of mining activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.

33. What are the factors which contribute towards the formation of soil?

Answer –

  • Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
  • Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc. contribute to the formation of soil.
  • Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important.

34. Where the alluvial soils can be found in India?

Answer –

  • This is the most widely spread and important soil in India.
  • In fact, the entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil. These have been deposited by three important Himalayan river systems– the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
  • These soils also extend in Rajasthan and Gujarat through a narrow corridor.
  • Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers.

35. What are the characteristics of the alluvial soil?

Or,

Describe any three main features of ‘Alluvial soil’ found in India.

Answer –

The characteristics of the alluvial soil are the followings –

  • The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.
  • According to their age alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar). The bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar. It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the bangar.
  • Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile.
  • Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.
  • Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline.

36. Which soil is found in the piedmont plains?

Answer –

In the upper reaches of the river valley i.e. near the place of the break of slope, the alluvial soil is coarse. Such soils are found in piedmont plains such as Duars, Chos and Terai.

37. Differentiate Khadar and Bangar soil.

Answer –

Khadar soil

Bangar soil

  1. It is new alluvial soil.
  2. It has lesser concentration of kanker nodules.
  3. It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the bangar.
  1. It is old alluvial soil.
  2. The bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar.
  3. It has less fine particles and is less fertile than the khadar.

38. Name some crops which are best grown in alluvial soil.

Answer –

Crops that are best grown in alluvial soil are sugarcane, paddy, wheat, and other cereal and pulse crops.

39. Which type of soil in India is most widespread and important ?

Answer –

Alluvial soil

40. Which soil is also known as regur soil?

Answer –

These soils are black in colour and are also known as regur soils.

41. Where the black soils can be found in India?

Answer –

Black soil is typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over northwest. Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flows. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extend in the south east direction along the Godavari and the Krishna valleys.

42. Which crop grows best in black soil?

Answer –

Black soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil.

43. What are the characteristics of the black soil?

OR
Describe any three main features of ‘Black soil’ found in India.

Answer –

  • The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material.
  • They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture.
  • They are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents.
  • They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil.
  • These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.

44. In which parts of India, the red and yellow soil can be find?

Answer –

Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau. Yellow and red soils are also found in parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats. These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.

45. Write a short note on Laterite soil.

Answer –

  • The laterite soil develops under tropical and subtropical climate with alternate wet and dry season.
  • This soil is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain.
  • Lateritic soils are mostly deep to very deep, acidic (pH<6.0), generally deficient in plant nutrients.
  • It occurs mostly in southern states, Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, Odisha, some parts of West Bengal and North-east regions.
  • Where these soils support deciduous and evergreen forests, it is humus rich, but under sparse vegetation and in semi-arid environment, it is generally humus poor.
  • They are prone to erosion and degradation due to their position on the landscape.
  • After adopting appropriate soil conservation techniques particularly in the hilly areas of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, this soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee.
  • Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more suitable for crops like cashew nut.

46. In which parts of India, the laterite soil can be find?

Answer –

The laterite soil is occur mostly in southern states, Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, Odisha, some parts of West Bengal and North-east regions.

47. Give one example of the main commercial crop cultivable in laterite soil. (1)

Answer –

Cashew nut, tea and coffee.

48. Which type of soil is most suitable for growing the crop of cashew nut ? (1)

Answer –

Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more suitable for crops like cashew nut.

49. Write a short note on Arid soil.

  • Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
  • They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
  • In some areas the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water.
  • Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.
  • The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards.
  • The Kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water.
  • After proper irrigation these soils become cultivable as has been in the case of western Rajasthan.

50. Write a short note on Forest soil.

  • These soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forests are available.
  • The soils texture varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed.
  • They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.
  • In the snow covered areas of Himalayas, these soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content.
  • The soils found in the lower parts of the valleys particularly on the river terraces and alluvial fans are fertile.

51. What is soil erosion?

Answer –

The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion.

52. What are gullies?

Or, What are Bad Lands?

Or, What are Ravines?

Answer –

The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies. The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land. In the Chambal basin, such lands are called ravines.

53. What is Sheet erosion?

Answer –

When water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope, the top soil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion.

54. What is counter ploughing?

Or,

Highlight the importance of contour ploughing.

Answer –

Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes. This is called contour ploughing.

55. What is strip cropping?

Answer –

When large fields are divided into strips and strips of grass are left to grow between the crops, the strips of grass break up the force of the wind and help to reduce soil erosion. This method is known as strip cropping.

56. What is shelter belt?

Answer –

When trees are planted in a line, it helps to beak the force of wind and helps to reduce soil erosion. Rows of such trees are called shelterbelts.

These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in stabilizing the desert in western India.

57. Mention some of the ways which we can use in agriculture practice to reduce soil erosion.

Answer –

Some of the ways which we can use in agriculture practice to reduce soil erosion are –

  1. Plowing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes.
    This is called contour plowing.
  2. Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces.
  3. Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as strip cropping.
  4. Planting lines of trees to create shelter also works in a similar way. Rows of such trees are called shelterbelts. These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in stabilizing the desert in western India.

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