CHAPTER 1 – DEVELOPMENT
PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS:
1. State any two goals of development other than income. (1)
Equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect of others are goals of development other than income.
2. What may be a goal of a landless rural labourers regarding their income?(1)
Goal of a landless rural labourers regarding their income may be –
- Desire of more days of work and better wages
- Availability of local school which will provide quality education for their children.
There should be no social discrimination and they too can become leaders in the village.
3. What may be a goal of prosperous farmer of Punjab?(1)
What may be a developmental goal of a rich farmer ? (1)
A developmental goal of a rich farmer may be –
- They desire for higher support prices for their crops.
- The need of hardworking and cheap labourers.
- They should be able to settle their children abroad.
4. What may be a developmental goal of a girl who belongs to a rich urban family ? (1)
A developmental goal of a girl who belongs to a rich urban family may be –
- She desires of freedom as much as her brother.
- She should be able to decide what she wants to do in life.
She should be able to pursue her studies abroad.
5. Define the term Per Capita income.(1)
What is Average Income or Per Capita Income?
The average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. The average income is also called per capita income.
6. Define the term Literacy rate.(1)
Literacy Rate is the proportion of literate population in the 7-and-above age group.
7. “While ‘averages’ are useful for comparison, they also hide disparities.” Explain.
Average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population but it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people. It may happen that larger resources is accumulated in few hands and large population is living in the poverty. In this situation, average income of the country may show higher value but actual truth may be different.
8. Which institution published the World Development Reports?
World Development Reports is published by the World Bank.
9. What is IMR?
Infant Mortality Rate (or IMR) indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.
10. What is Net Attendance Ratio?
Net Attendance Ratio is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
11. “Money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well.” Support the statement with the help of an example.
Suppose if someone get a job in a far off place then before accepting it he/she would try to consider many factors, apart from income, such as facilities for your family, working atmosphere, or opportunity to learn.
Similarly in another case, there is a job which may pay less but may offer regular employment that enhances the sense of security and on the other hand there may be a job which may offer high pay but no have no job security and also leave no time for his/her family which will reduce his/her sense of security and freedom.
From above example we could say money could not buy good working atmosphere and sense of job security and freedom.
12. Which institution published the Human Development Reports?
Human Development Report is published by UNDP.
13. What is Life Expectancy?
Life Expectancy at birth denotes, as the name suggests, the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.
14. What is Sustainable Development?
Balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for the future is called sustainable development.
15. Development of a country is determined by which factors?
The development of a country is determined by the educational levels of the people, their health status, and per capita income.
16. What is BMI?
Body Mass Index (BMI) is the ratio of the weight (in kg) to the square of the height (in metre) of the person.
BMI value helps to understand if a person is undernourished, properly nourished, or obese.
17. Describe the role of technology in promoting globalisation process. (5)
Rapid improvement in technology has stimulated the globalisation process.
i. This has made much faster delivery of goods across long distances possible at lower costs.
ii. Even more remarkable have been the developments in information and communication technology.
iii. Technology in the areas of telecommunications, computers, Internet has been changing rapidly.
iv. Telecommunication facilities (telegraph, telephone including mobile phones, fax) are used to contact one another around the world, to access information instantly, and to communicate from remote areas.
v. This has been facilitated by satellite communication devices.