NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Answer the following questions:
Q. No.1) What do you mean by virgin vegetation?
Natural vegetation or virgin vegetation refers to a plant community, which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time.
Q. No.2) What do you mean by the term flora and fauna?
The term flora is used to denote plants of a particular region or period.
Similarly, the term fauna is used to denote species of animal of a particular region or period.
Q. No.3) What do you mean by endemic and exotic species?
The virgin vegetation, which are purely to a particular region (country) are known as endemic or indigenous species but those which have come from outside that region are termed as exotic plants.
Q. No.4) What are the reasons for the diversity in the flora and fauna of India?
The huge diversity in the flora and fauna kingdom is due to the following factors –
A. Relief features –
The nature of land and soil influences the type of vegetation. The sandy soils of the desert support cactus and thorny bushes, while wet, marshy, deltaic soils support mangroves and deltaic vegetation. Similarly, rough terrain in tropical regions grows into dense forests.
B. Climate –
The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation, and soil.
– fall in the temperature affects the types of vegetation and its growth.
– vegetation getting longer duration of sunlight grows faster, similarly in summer trees grow faster.
– Areas of heavy rainfall have denser vegetation as compared to areas of less rainfall.
Q. No.5) Why are the southern slopes in the Himalayan region covered with thick vegetation cover as compared to the northern slopes of the same hills?
The southern slopes in the Himalayan region receive more amount of rainfall and sunlight as compared to the northern slopes. So, the southern slopes in the Himalayan region are covered with thick vegetation cover as compared to the northern slopes of the same hills.
Q. No.6) Why are the western slopes of the Western Ghats covered with thick forests and not the eastern slopes?
When the southwest monsoon inflows into India, the western slope of the Western Ghat lies on the windward side whereas the eastern slope falls on the leeward side. So, the western slopes of the Western Ghats are covered with thick forests and not the eastern slopes.
Q. No.7) What is the mean annual average temperature of the following vegetation zones?
The mean annual average temperature
17°C to 24°C
7°C to 17°C
Q. No.8) Explain the importance of forests for human beings.
The importance of forests for human beings can be understood by the following points –
- Forests are renewable resources and play a major role in enhancing the quality of the environment.
- They modify the local climate, control soil erosion, regulate stream flow, support a variety of industries, provide a livelihood for many communities and offer panoramic or scenic views for recreation.
- They control wind force and temperature and cause rain.
- They provide humus to the soil and shelter to the wildlife.
Q. No.9) What is the forest cover area in India?
According to the India State of Forest Report 2011, the forest cover in India is 21.05 percent.
Q. No.10) What are the types of vegetation found in India?
The following major types of vegetation may be identified in our country –
- Tropical Evergreen Forests
- Tropical Deciduous Forests
- Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
- Montane Forests
- Mangrove Forests
Q. No.11) Which is the most widespread forest in India?
Tropical Deciduous Forest
Q. No.12) Classify deciduous forests on the basis of the availability of rainfall.
On the basis of the availability of water, these forests are divided into –
a) Moist deciduous forest –
It is found in areas receiving rainfall between 200 and 100 cm.
b ) Dry deciduous forest –
The dry deciduous forests are found in areas having rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm.
Q. No.13) When was the Wildlife Protection Act introduced in India?
Wildlife Protection Act was implemented in 1972 in India.
Q. No.14) What steps have been taken by the government of India to protect the flora and fauna?
To protect the flora and fauna of the country, the government has taken many steps.
- Eighteen biosphere reserves have been set up in the country to protect flora and fauna.
- Financial and technical assistance is provided to many botanical gardens by the government since 1992.
- Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard, and many other eco-developmental projects have been introduced.
- 103 National Parks, 535 Wildlife sanctuaries, and Zoological gardens are set up to take care of natural heritage.
Q. No.15) How many biosphere reserves of India are included in the world network of biosphere reserves?
Out of 18 biosphere reserves of India, 10 are included in the world network of biosphere reserves. They are –
- the Sundarbans
- Nanda Devi
- the Gulf of Mannar
- the Nilgiri
- Great Nicobar
Q. No.16) Which is the last remaining habitat of the Asiatic lion?
The Gir Forest is the last remaining habitat of the Asiatic lion.